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HIV in Low and Middle-Income Countries: Addressing scientific gaps

Thematic Series

Edited by 
Ritu Gaur, South Asian University, New Delhi, India    
Thumbi Ndung’u, Africa Health Research Institute, Durban, South Africa 
   

Over the past four decades, significant scientific progress has been made in our understanding of the modes of transmission, virus life cycle, host immune responses to the virus and viral adaptation to these immune responses. The scientific knowledge generated has led to the development of: reliable diagnostic tests; biomedical prevention strategies; and effective treatment options that contributed to the notable decline in HIV/AIDS related deaths and HIV incidence. However, HIV/AIDS remains the most significant public health challenge globally and is disproportionately affecting the low- and middle-income countries of the world. 

Two human immunodeficiency viruses exist, HIV-1 and HIV-2 that represent two separate independent zoonotic transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses from non-human primates to humans. HIV-1 has expanded most efficiently globally and is responsible for the vast majority of infections. HIV-1 exists as different groups, M, O, N and P. Group M is the dominant group globally and it can be subdivided into 10 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms. These subtypes are unevenly distributed worldwide and there is evidence that they have distinct dynamics of spread, are associated with differences in the rate of clinical disease progression and have distinct biological properties. 

Considering the disproportionate public health impact of HIV/AIDS in low- and middle-income countries and the uneven spread of HIV subtypes worldwide, this thematic series published in Retrovirology will emphasize the scientific gaps in HIV/AIDS research that are relevant to the epidemic in these settings. The series will highlight scientific challenges in understanding HIV diversity worldwide, HIV immunopathogenesis research relevant to the developing world and basic biology research that emphasizes the HIV-1 strains that predominate in low- and middle-income countries. The series will also discuss how these scientific findings can be translated to improve the prevention, treatment, cure and eradication of HIV, particularly in communities where these interventions are urgently needed. 

Submission instructions

Before submitting your manuscript, please ensure you have carefully read the submission guidelines for Retrovirology.

The complete manuscript should be submitted through the journal submission system.

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Deadline for submissions: 31 August 2021

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