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Treatment outcomes and paving the way for an HIV cure in Low and Middle Income Countries

Thematic Series

This AIDS Research and Therapy thematic series, edited by Dr Eric Arts, Dr Nicaise Ndembi and Dr Denis Tebit, covers the ways treatment outcomes can be improved along the way to a HIV cure in states defined as low and middle income countries (LMICs) by the WHO.

Discussion of HIV treatment outcomes in LMICs has historically been neglected, even though it is in these countries that a cure is most crucial. Of course, a cure for any HIV infected individual is equally critical but as many of you are witnessing, even a low rate of first line treatment failures in LIMCs has a devastating impact for the long term outcome of these patient,s as well as the efficacy of first line treatments in newly infected, naive patients.

Treatment failure also presents an incredible burden - financially and in human terms - on the health care infrastructure in LIMCs. There are currently over 22 million people  on treatment, without a significant decrease in new infections even though there has been a decrease in overall mortality.  In the near-medium term,  it is probable that there will soon be 40+ million on life-long treatment costing over $60 billion a year. Based on this fact alone, a cure is of significant importance in LIMC which are beholden of support from the HIC for the programs set up by PEPFAR and UNAIDS.

  1. There is limited evidence on the modification or stopping of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens, including novel antiretroviral drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the discontinuation of first ART ...

    Authors: Volkan Korten, Deniz Gökengin, Gülhan Eren, Taner Yıldırmak, Serap Gencer, Haluk Eraksoy, Dilara Inan, Figen Kaptan, Başak Dokuzoğuz, Ilkay Karaoğlan, Ayşe Willke, Mehmet Gönen and Önder Ergönül

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2021 18:4

    Content type: Research

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  2. Pediatric tuberculosis (TB), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and TB-HIV co-infection are health problems with evidence-based diagnostic and treatment algorithms that can reduce morbidity and mortality. Imp...

    Authors: W. Chris Buck, Hanh Nguyen, Mariana Siapka, Lopa Basu, Jessica Greenberg Cowan, Maria Inês De Deus, Megan Gleason, Ferreira Ferreira, Carla Xavier, Benedita Jose, Criménia Muthemba, Beatriz Simione and Peter Kerndt

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2021 18:3

    Content type: Research

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  3. South Africa, with one of the highest HIV prevalences in the world, introduced the universal test and treat (UTT) programme in September 2016. Barriers to sustained viral suppression may include drug resistanc...

    Authors: Pascal O. Bessong, Nontokozo D. Matume and Denis M. Tebit

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2021 18:1

    Content type: Review

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  4. Diagnosis of people living with HIV (PLHIV) is the first step toward achieving the new Fast Track Strategy to end AIDS by 2030: 95-95-95. However, reaching PLHIV is especially difficult in resource-limited set...

    Authors: Mohammad Pour, Linda James, Kamlendra Singh, Samuel Mampunza, Franklin Baer, JoAnna Scott, Michael G. Berg, Mary A. Rodgers, Gavin A. Cloherty, John Hackett Jr and Carole P. McArthur

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2020 17:67

    Content type: Research

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  5. Analytical treatment interruptions (ATI) are commonly used clinical endpoints to assess interventions aimed at curing HIV or achieving antiretroviral therapy (ART)-free HIV remission. Understanding the accepta...

    Authors: Jillian S. Y. Lau, Miranda Z. Smith, Brent Allan, Cipriano Martinez, Jennifer Power, Sharon R. Lewin and James H. McMahon

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2020 17:65

    Content type: Short Report

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  6. A substantial number of persons living with HIV (PLWH) in Nigeria do not experience durable viral suppression on first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). Understanding risk factors for first-line treatment fai...

    Authors: Nicaise Ndembi, Fati Murtala-Ibrahim, Monday Tola, Jibreel Jumare, Ahmad Aliyu, Peter Alabi, Charles Mensah, Alash’le Abimiku, Miguel E. Quiñones-Mateu, Trevor A. Crowell, Soo-Yon Rhee, Robert W. Shafer, Ravindra Gupta, William Blattner, Manhattan E. Charurat and Patrick Dakum

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2020 17:64

    Content type: Research

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  7. AIDS-related KS generally involves cutaneous lesions, that slowly progress over months to years. Neither rapidly progressing of KS nor KS complicated with hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) has rarely been reported.

    Authors: Pingzheng Mo, Liping Deng, Xiaoping Chen, Yong Xiong and Yongxi Zhang

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2020 17:58

    Content type: Case Report

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  8. HIV Self-Testing (HIVST) is universally accepted as an innovative strategy complimenting existing HIV testing services to archive the UNAIDS, 95-95-95 goals by 2030. However, the adoption of HIVST is lagging i...

    Authors: Proches Arobogast Vara, Luyeye Sostenes Buhulula, Fatma Aziz Mohammed and Bernard Njau

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2020 17:56

    Content type: Research

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  9. It is well known that people living with HIV (PLWH) is in higher risk for the development of depression and it has also been suggested that the use of efavirenz into the antiretroviral regimens increases even ...

    Authors: Alejandro Checa, Alberto Castillo, Malena Camacho, William Tapia, Isabel Hernandez and Enrique Teran

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2020 17:47

    Content type: Short Report

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  10. To evaluate the impact of AIDS-defining events (ADE) on long-term mortality of HIV positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART), a retrospective HIV/AIDS treatment cohort study performed in Southwester...

    Authors: Yunxuan Huang, Oulu Zhou, Zhigang Zheng, Yuexiang Xu, Yi Shao, Chunwei Qin, Fengxiang Qin, Jingzhen Lai, Huifang Liu, Rongfeng Chen, Li Ye, Hao Liang, Xionglin Qin and Junjun Jiang

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2020 17:44

    Content type: Research

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  11. Early detection of viremia in HIV infected patients on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is important to prevent disease progression as well as accumulation of drug resistance mutations. This makes HIV viral load ...

    Authors: Ashwini Shete, Sampada Dhayarkar, Ashwini Dhamanage, Smita Kulkarni, Manisha Ghate, Shashikala Sangle, Uttam Medhe, Vinita Verma, Shobini Rajan, Toshio Hattori and Raman Gangakhedkar

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2020 17:43

    Content type: Research

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  12. Antiretroviral treatment has played a pivotal role in the reduction of HIV/AIDS-related morbidity and mortality. However, treatment options can be impaired by the development of antiretroviral treatment failur...

    Authors: Jemberu Nega, Solomon Taye, Yihenew Million, Chaturaka Rodrigo and Setegn Eshetie

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2020 17:39

    Content type: Research

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  13. Long acting and permanent contraceptive methods by far are the most effective, very safe and convenient methods than short acting contraceptive methods. But in less developed countries, use of long acting reve...

    Authors: Betselot Yirsaw, Feleke Gebremeskel, Gebrekiros Gebremichael and Tewoderos Shitemaw

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2020 17:34

    Content type: Research

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  14. The clinical and laboratory characteristics of AIDS-associated Talaromyces marneffei infection, a rare but a fatal mycosis disease of the central nervous system, remain unclear.

    Authors: Yu-Ye Li, Rong-Jing Dong, Samip Shrestha, Pratishtha Upadhyay, Hui-Qin Li, Yi-Qun Kuang, Xin-Ping Yang and Yun-Gui Zhang

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2020 17:26

    Content type: Case Report

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  15. Through universal “test and treat approach” (UTT) it is believed that HIV new infection and AIDS related death will be reduced at community level and through time HIV can be eliminated. With this assumption th...

    Authors: Tadele Girum, Fedila Yasin, Abebaw Wasie, Teha Shumbej, Fitsum Bekele and Bereket Zeleke

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2020 17:19

    Content type: Research

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  16. The high rate of mortality among HIV-vertically infected adolescents might be favoured by HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) emergence, which calls for timeous actions in this underserved population. We thus sought t...

    Authors: Joseph Fokam, Armanda Nangmo, Carlson Wandum, Desire Takou, Maria Mercedes Santoro, Anne-Esther Njom Nlend, Francis Ndongo Ateba, Paul Koki Ndombo, Nelly Kamgaing, Cedric Kamta, Andre Essiane, Virginie Lambo, Charles Fokunang, Dora Mbanya, Vittorio Colizzi, Carlo-Federico Perno…

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2020 17:14

    Content type: Research

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  17. Antiretroviral adherence is essential to HIV treatment efficacy. Various self-reported measures are commonly used for assessing antiretroviral adherence. Limited data are available regarding the validity of th...

    Authors: Quan Zhang, Xiaoming Li, Shan Qiao, Zhiyong Shen and Yuejiao Zhou

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2020 17:8

    Content type: Research

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  18. Expanded access to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) throughout sub-Saharan Africa over the last decade has remarkably improved the prognosis of persons living with HIV (PLWH). However, some PLWH exper...

    Authors: Ernest Ekong, Nicaise Ndembi, Prosper Okonkwo, Patrick Dakum, John Idoko, Bolanle Banigbe, James Okuma, Patricia Agaba, William Blattner, Clement Adebamowo and Manhattan Charurat

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2020 17:7

    Content type: Research

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  19. For migrant female sex workers (FSWs) at the Sino-Vietnamese border, the impact of work time in their current location on the spread of HIV/AIDS is not clear.

    Authors: Yu Zhang, Bingyu Liang, Deping Liu, Guangwu Wei, Shide Mo, Aidan Nong, Chuanyi Ning, Yanyan Liao, Junjun Jiang, PeiJiang Pan, Yuan Yang, Ning Zang, Dinh Vanphu, Nguyen Van, Li Ye, Hao Liang…

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2020 17:4

    Content type: Research

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  20. Despite advances in the treatment quality of HIV throughout the world, several countries are still facing numerous obstacles in delivering HIV treatment at a sufficiently high quality, putting patients’ lives ...

    Authors: S. Jespersen, F. Månsson, J. Lindman, C. Wejse, C. Medina, Z. J. da Silva, DdS Te, P. Medstrand, J. Esbjörnsson and B. L. Hønge

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2020 17:3

    Content type: Review

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  21. Dolutegravir (DTG)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is currently the first-line treatment for people living with HIV. Neuropsychiatric adverse events (NP-AEs) have been reported with DTG but neuropsychiatric...

    Authors: Phillip Chan, Orlanda Goh, Eugène Kroon, Donn Colby, Carlo Sacdalan, Suteeraporn Pinyakorn, Peeriya Prueksakaew, Peter Reiss, Jintanat Ananworanich, Victor Valcour, Serena Spudich and Robert Paul

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2020 17:1

    Content type: Research

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  22. After the launching of the « Test & Treat » strategy and the wider accessibility to viral load (VL), evaluating virological success (VS) would help in meeting the UNAIDS targets by 2020 in Cameroon.

    Authors: Joseph Fokam, Samuel Martin Sosso, Bouba Yagai, Serge Clotaire Billong, Rina Estelle Djubgang Mbadie, Rachel Kamgaing Simo, Serge Valery Edimo, Alex Durand Nka, Aline Tiga Ayissi, Junie Flore Yimga, Désiré Takou, Sylvie Moudourou, Marinette Ngo Nemb, Jean-Bosco Nfetam Elat, Maria-Mercedes Santoro, Carlo-Federico Perno…

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2019 16:36

    Content type: Research

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  23. Against the current global trends, in the former Soviet Union (FSU) countries HIV prevalence is on the rise. Visa-free movement across borders has facilitated migrant-associated HIV transmission within this re...

    Authors: Aidana Amangaldiyeva, Salima Davlidova, Bauyrzhan Baiserkin, Natalya Dzissyuk, Jack DeHovitz and Syed Ali

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2019 16:35

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  24. Expanded access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) leads to improved HIV/AIDS treatment outcomes in Nigeria, however, increasing rates of loss to follow-up among those on ART is threatening optimal standard achie...

    Authors: Ahmad Aliyu, Babatunde Adelekan, Nifarta Andrew, Eunice Ekong, Stephen Dapiap, Fati Murtala-Ibrahim, Iboro Nta, Nicaise Ndembi, Charles Mensah and Patrick Dakum

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2019 16:30

    Content type: Research

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  25. As antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs expand access, there is an increase in burden to a healthcare system. These results are reduced provider-patient contact time and poor programmatic and patient outcomes...

    Authors: Ahmad Aliyu, Samer El-Kamary, Jessica Brown, Bruce Agins, Nicaise Ndembi, Gambo Aliyu, Jibreel Jumare, Babatunde Adelekan, Patrick Dakum, Alash’le Abimiku and Manhattan Charurat

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2019 16:29

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  26. A negative status following confirmatory Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) is the desired pediatric outcome of prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) programs. EID impacts epidemic control by confirming...

    Authors: Patrick Dakum, Monday Tola, Nta Iboro, Chukwuemeka A. Okolo, Olachi Anuforom, Christopher Chime, Sam Peters, Jibreel Jumare, Obinna Ogbanufe, Aliyu Ahmad and Nicaise Ndembi

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2019 16:27

    Content type: Research

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  27. Thailand has the highest prevalence of HIV among countries in Asia but has also been a pioneer in HIV prevention and treatment efforts in the region, reducing the incidence of new infections significantly over...

    Authors: Camilla Muccini, Trevor A. Crowell, Eugène Kroon, Carlo Sacdalan, Reshmie Ramautarsing, Pich Seekaew, Praphan Phanuphak, Jintanat Ananworanich, Donn J. Colby and Nittaya Phanuphak

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2019 16:25

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  28. Two HIV virus types exist: HIV-1 is pandemic and aggressive, whereas HIV-2 is confined mainly to West Africa and less pathogenic. Despite the fact that it has been almost 40 years since the discovery of AIDS, ...

    Authors: Joakim Esbjörnsson, Marianne Jansson, Sanne Jespersen, Fredrik Månsson, Bo L. Hønge, Jacob Lindman, Candida Medina, Zacarias J. da Silva, Hans Norrgren, Patrik Medstrand, Sarah L. Rowland-Jones and Christian Wejse

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2019 16:24

    Content type: Review

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  29. Brazil is a low-and-middle income country (LMIC) that, despite having a large population and continental dimensions, has been able to successfully fight HIV/AIDS through a number of governmental and societal m...

    Authors: Adele S. Benzaken, Gerson F. M. Pereira, Lendel Costa, Amilcar Tanuri, André F. Santos and Marcelo A. Soares

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2019 16:19

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  30. People living with HIV (PLHIV) constantly need to address social issues such as the cost of accessing care, stigma, and lack of social support which impacts on their level of adherence to clinic visits or anti...

    Authors: Babatunde Adelekan, Nifarta Andrew, Iboro Nta, Asabe Gomwalk, Nicaise Ndembi, Charles Mensah, Patrick Dakum and Ahmad Aliyu

    Citation: AIDS Research and Therapy 2019 16:17

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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