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Wildlife Diseases

New Content ItemHere we present a collection of articles published in Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica advancing our knowledge of wildlife research, ranging from diseases in reindeer to boars to hares, and more.


We invite you to contribute to this collection on topics relating to wildlife diseases. 


To submit your manuscript, please use our online submission system, and indicate in your cover letter that you would like the manuscript to be considered for this article collection. For more information on how to submit your article to Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, please see our submission guidelines.


  1. Health assessment of seals in captivity include haematology and serum biochemistry measurements. Because such parameters differ between species, it is crucial to have species-specific reference values for the ...

    Authors: Morten Tryland, Christian Lydersen, Kit Maureen Kovacs, Espen Rafter and Stein Istre Thoresen
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:33

    The Correction to this article has been published in Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:36

  2. Captive European bison (Bison bonasus) play an active role in conservation measures for this species; this includes education, which may conflict with these animals’ welfare. The effect of the presence of visitor...

    Authors: Daniel Klich, Rafał Łopucki, Marta Gałązka, Agnieszka Ścibior, Dorota Gołębiowska, Rita Brzezińska, Bartosz Kruszewski, Tadeusz Kaleta and Wanda Olech
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:24
  3. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere and Australia. The presence of nematode-infected foxes in urbanized areas increases the risk of transmission of nematodes to domestic d...

    Authors: Agnieszka Tylkowska, Bogumiła Pilarczyk, Agnieszka Tomza-Marciniak and Renata Pilarczyk
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:19
  4. Semi-domesticated reindeer represent an important livestock industry and livelihood for a proportion of the human population in northern Fennoscandia. Reindeer husbandry is considered an extensive animal husba...

    Authors: Lene Idland, Amalie Moen Juul, Ellen Karin Solevåg, Kristoffer Relling Tysnes, Lucy Jane Robertson and Kjersti Selstad Utaaker
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:13
  5. An overall increase in poaching of white rhinoceros results in captive breeding becoming a significant component of white rhinoceros conservation. However, this type of conservation comes with its own difficul...

    Authors: Angela Buys, Jannie Crafford and Henriette van Heerden
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2020 62:57
  6. Environmental changes contribute to the development of ophthalmic diseases in sea turtles, but information on their eye biometrics is scarce. The aim of this study was to describe ophthalmic ultrasonographic f...

    Authors: Caterina Muramoto, Vinícius Cardoso-Brito, Ana Cláudia Raposo, Thais Torres Pires and Arianne Pontes Oriá
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2020 62:52
  7. Sami reindeer herders have considerable traditional knowledge about a neurological reindeer disease resembling elaphostrongylosis, but the causative agent was not identified prior to the description of the bra...

    Authors: Rebecca K. Davidson, Torill Mørk, Karin E. Holmgren and Antti Oksanen
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2020 62:24
  8. The study aimed to compare the gastrointestinal helminthofauna of free-ranging wild boars from arable lands and forests, which are the natural habitats for wild boar in Poland and further to investigate if wil...

    Authors: Paweł Nosal, Jerzy Kowal, Anna Wyrobisz-Papiewska and Marek Wajdzik
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2020 62:9
  9. General knowledge on climate change effects and adaptation strategies has increased significantly in recent years. However, there is still a substantial information gap regarding the influence of climate chang...

    Authors: Anna Omazic, Helena Bylund, Sofia Boqvist, Ann Högberg, Christer Björkman, Morten Tryland, Birgitta Evengård, Anders Koch, Camilla Berggren, Alexander Malogolovkin, Denis Kolbasov, Nataly Pavelko, Tomas Thierfelder and Ann Albihn
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2019 61:53
  10. Biofilm production is a well-known causative factor of catheter- and medical device-related sepsis. Its high prevalence in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) has recently been reported. Information on bio...

    Authors: Sangjun Lee, Jehwi Hwang, Jongwoon Kim, Joonyeop Lee, Hong-Cheul Kim, Haerin Rhim and Jae-Ik Han
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2019 61:50
  11. Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite of worldwide importance. In this study, we estimated T. gondii seroprevalence in extensively farmed wild boars in Denmark, where little is known about T. gondii in animal ...

    Authors: Celine Kaae Laforet, Gunita Deksne, Heidi Huus Petersen, Pikka Jokelainen, Maria Vang Johansen and Brian Lassen
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2019 61:4
  12. The swine-adapted serovar Choleraesuis of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica is found rarely in domestic pigs in Germany. However, a considerable and increasing number of S. Choleraesuis organisms have been ...

    Authors: Ulrich Methner, Sabine Merbach and Martin Peters
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2018 60:65
  13. Vultures have adapted the remarkable ability to feed on carcasses that may contain microorganisms that would be pathogenic to most other animals. The holobiont concept suggests that the genetic basis of such a...

    Authors: Marie Lisandra Zepeda Mendoza, Michael Roggenbuck, Karla Manzano Vargas, Lars Hestbjerg Hansen, Søren Brunak, M. Thomas P. Gilbert and Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2018 60:61
  14. Leptospira spp. infect humans and a wide range of domestic and wild animals, but certain species such as small rodents and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) play a particular role as reservoirs and transmission of leptos...

    Authors: Jacek Żmudzki, Zbigniew Arent, Artur Jabłoński, Agnieszka Nowak, Sylwia Zębek, Agnieszka Stolarek, Łukasz Bocian, Adam Brzana and Zygmunt Pejsak
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2018 60:34
  15. Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. It has a wide host range, which includes mammals, birds and invertebrates. F. tularensis has often been isolated from various species of sma...

    Authors: Gete Hestvik, Henrik Uhlhorn, Roland Mattsson, Eva Westergren, Fredrik Södersten, Sara Åkerström and Dolores Gavier-Widén
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2018 60:26
  16. Brucellosis due to Brucella suis biovar 2 is one of the most important endemic diseases in wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations in Europe. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of brucell...

    Authors: Lelde Grantina-Ievina, Jelena Avsejenko, Svetlana Cvetkova, Dita Krastina, Madara Streikisa, Zanete Steingolde, Indra Vevere and Ieva Rodze
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2018 60:19
  17. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the major causes of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of HEV genotype 3 has been associated with domestic pigs and wild boar. Contro...

    Authors: Ugne Spancerniene, Juozas Grigas, Jurate Buitkuviene, Judita Zymantiene, Vida Juozaitiene, Milda Stankeviciute, Dainius Razukevicius, Dainius Zienius and Arunas Stankevicius
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2018 60:13

    The Correction to this article has been published in Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2019 61:9

  18. The zoonotic Orf virus (ORFV; genus Parapoxvirus, Poxviridae family) occurs worldwide and is transmitted between sheep and goats, wildlife and man. Archived tissue samples from 16 Alaskan wildlife cases, represen...

    Authors: Morten Tryland, Kimberlee Beth Beckmen, Kathleen Ann Burek-Huntington, Eva Marie Breines and Joern Klein
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2018 60:12
  19. Exposure to long-range transported industrial chemicals, climate change and diseases is posing a risk to the overall health and populations of Arctic wildlife. Since local communities are relying on the same m...

    Authors: Christian Sonne, Robert James Letcher, Bjørn Munro Jenssen, Jean-Pierre Desforges, Igor Eulaers, Emilie Andersen-Ranberg, Kim Gustavson, Bjarne Styrishave and Rune Dietz
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2017 59:84
  20. The intention to increase roach (Rutilus rutilus) consumption is in focus for ecological and economic reasons in Finland. However, its safety as food has not been considered comprehensively. We collected and arti...

    Authors: Anu Näreaho, Anna Maria Eriksson-Kallio, Petra Heikkinen, Anna Snellman, Antti Sukura and Perttu Koski
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2017 59:75
  21. Infectious skin disorders are not uncommon in mink. Such disorders are important as they have a negative impact on animal health and welfare as well as on the quality and value of the fur. This study presents ...

    Authors: Bettina Nonnemann, Mariann Chriél, Gitte Larsen, Mette Sif Hansen, Elisabeth Holm and Karl Pedersen
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2017 59:74
  22. European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) was detected in Finland in a Daubenton’s bat (Myotis daubentonii) found in the municipality of Inkoo (60°02′45″N, 024°00′20″E). The bat showed neurological signs and was la...

    Authors: Tiina Nokireki, Tarja Sironen, Teemu Smura, Veera Karkamo, Liisa Sihvonen and Tuija Gadd
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2017 59:62
  23. The number and spatial distribution of wild boars (Sus scrofa) has increased remarkably in Sweden as well as in other European countries. To understand the population dynamics of the wild boar, knowledge of its r...

    Authors: Anna Malmsten, Gunnar Jansson, Nils Lundeheim and Anne-Marie Dalin
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2017 59:52
  24. Scanning techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are useful tools in veterinary and human medicine. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of these techniques in the study ...

    Authors: Aage Kristian Olsen Alstrup, Ole Lajord Munk, Trine Hammer Jensen, Lasse Fast Jensen, Abdi Hedayat and Brian Hansen
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2017 59:38
  25. Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is a transmissible disease in semi-domesticated Eurasian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). It is regarded as multifactorial and a single causative pathogen has not yet b...

    Authors: Morten Tryland, Javier Sánchez Romano, Nina Marcin, Ingebjørg Helena Nymo, Terje Domaas Josefsen, Karen Kristine Sørensen and Torill Mørk
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2017 59:23
  26. Rabies is a disease of global significance including in the circumpolar Arctic. In Alaska enzootic rabies persist in northern and western coastal areas. Only sporadic cases have occurred in areas outside of th...

    Authors: Falk Huettmann, Emily Elizabeth Magnuson and Karsten Hueffer
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2017 59:18
  27. Mycobacterium spp. and Rhodococcus equi are generally regarded as the main causes of lymphadenitis in pigs and wild boars. In Poland, mycobacterial submandibular lymphadenitis was first d...

    Authors: Lucjan Witkowski, Blanka Orłowska, Magdalena Rzewuska, Michał Czopowicz, Mirosław Welz, Krzysztof Anusz and Jerzy Kita
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2017 59:9
  28. Since the re-appearance of wild boars in Sweden in the 1970s, the population has increased. Besides having large litter sizes, puberty at an early age is considered as an important factor contributing to the h...

    Authors: Anna Malmsten and Anne-Marie Dalin
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2016 58:55
  29. Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium that infects a wide range of animal species and causes the disease Q fever. Both wild and domestic ruminants may be relevant in the epidemiolo...

    Authors: Xavier Fernández-Aguilar, Óscar Cabezón, Andreu Colom-Cadena, Santiago Lavín and Jorge Ramón López-Olvera
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2016 58:26
  30. Yersiniosis is a zoonosis widely distributed in Europe and swine carry different serotypes of Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Y. enteroc...

    Authors: Maialen Arrausi-Subiza, Xeider Gerrikagoitia, Vega Alvarez, Jose Carlos Ibabe and Marta Barral
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2016 58:4
  31. Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), a group of enzymes conferring resistance to third generation cephalosporins have rapidly increased in Enterobacteriacae and pose a major challenge to human health care. Res...

    Authors: Johan Stedt, Jonas Bonnedahl, Jorge Hernandez, Jonas Waldenström, Barry J. McMahon, Conny Tolf, Björn Olsen and Mirva Drobni
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2015 57:74
  32. A sudden decline of the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) population in one of the best hunting districts for small game species in northern Germany, the German North-Sea island Pellworm, in the years 2007/08...

    Authors: Annika Posautz, Igor Loncaric, Marie Lundin, Daniel Hoffmann, Antonio Lavazza, Zsofia Kelemen, Christoph Beiglböck, Christian Walzer and Anna Kübber-Heiss
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2015 57:43
  33. Although the prevalence of human Toxoplasma gondii infections is high in Estonia, no information is available on the prevalence of infections in the local animal populations. Wild boars are a good indicator speci...

    Authors: Pikka Jokelainen, Kaisa Velström and Brian Lassen
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2015 57:42
  34. In 2010, an Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) stock reservoir was established for conservation purposes in north-eastern Spain. Eighteen ibexes were captured in the wild and housed in a 17 hectare enclosur...

    Authors: Andreu Colom-Cadena, Roser Velarde, Jesús Salinas, Carmen Borge, Ignacio García-Bocanegra, Emmanuel Serrano, Diana Gassó, Ester Bach, Encarna Casas-Díaz, Jorge R López-Olvera, Santiago Lavín, Luís León-Vizcaíno and Gregorio Mentaberre
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2014 56:83
  35. Thirteen red deer (Cervus elaphus), culled from the isolated population at the Mongstad Oil Refinery, Norway, were investigated for gastrointestinal helminths. These animals, enclosed by the refinery fence, do no...

    Authors: Rebecca K Davidson, Susan J Kutz, Knut Madslien, Eric Hoberg and Kjell Handeland
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2014 56:59
  36. The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in common moles, Talpa europaea, was investigated in order to determine whether moles can serve as an indicator species for T. gondii infections in livestock.

    Authors: Inge M Krijger, Jan BWJ Cornelissen, Henk J Wisselink and Bastiaan G Meerburg
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2014 56:48
  37. Systematic pathological investigations to assess the health status of seabirds and coastal birds in Germany were performed. The investigation was conducted to obtain data on possible causes of decline in seabi...

    Authors: Ursula Siebert, Philipp Schwemmer, Nils Guse, Timm Harder, Stefan Garthe, Ellen Prenger-Berninghoff and Peter Wohlsein
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2012 54:43
  38. Serological surveys for disease investigation of wild animal populations require obtaining blood samples for analysis, which has logistic, ethic and economic difficulties. Applying serological test to fluids c...

    Authors: Eva-Britt Jakubek, Roland Mattsson, Torsten Mörner, Jens G Mattsson and Dolores Gavier-Widén
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2012 54:13
  39. A total of 119 fresh faecal samples were collected from graylag geese migrating northwards in April. Also, cloacal swabs were taken from 100 carcasses of graylag geese shot during the hunting season in August....

    Authors: A Lillehaug, C Monceyron Jonassen, B Bergsjø, M Hofshagen, J Tharaldsen, LL Nesse and K Handeland
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2005 46:193
  40. Faecal samples were collected, as part of the National Health Surveillance Program for Cervids (HOP) in Norway, from wild red deer, roe deer, moose and reindeer during ordinary hunting seasons from 2001 to 200...

    Authors: A. Lillehaug, B. Bergsjø, J. Schau, T. Bruheim, T. Vikøren and K. Handeland
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2005 46:23
  41. Rabies seems to persist throughout most arctic regions, and the northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, is the only part of the Arctic where rabies has not been diagnosed in recent time. The arctic fox i...

    Authors: Torill Mørk and Pål Prestrud
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2004 45:1